BIM (Building Information Modeling) methodology is based on the digitization of information made in real time and in a multidisciplinary manner. This is achieved with the collaborative participation of professionals from the various AECO areas in the development of a constructive project. It is a key element and an important tool for the historical heritage sector. Thus, BIM is beneficial for research processes, safety measures and for the innovative management of information and also in conservation processes.
Digital data management for historical heritage
Uniting historical heritage studies with BIM methodology has led to a broad knowledge of the sector and a guided development in collaborative research, by creating new forms of digital data management for the historical heritage. Also, the construction of information models through data monitoring and simulations.
In this way, in order to facilitate the concept of collaboration and the ability to manage resources among those involved in the project related to historical heritage, BIM software integrates multidimensional visualization with broad parametric databases. This means going beyond 3D modeling and incorporating intelligent data with multi functions and representations.
In this way, BIM is a process of illustrating all of the elements that make up a building digitally.
This generally consists of:
Geometry (2D and 3D): It is based on the metric data that document the size, position and dimensions of the visible surfaces, components and historical heritage scenario.
The non-geometric information: are the physical characteristics of the construction, what belongs to the appearance (materials and conditions) and, on the other hand, also includes the cultural, historical, architectural style and time of existence. This set of BIM information is data that transforms the geometric and generic model into a specific and personalized object.
Documents and subordinate data: In the process that involves BIM technology it is possible to insert data such as technical specifications of products, operation and maintenance manuals, reports, case studies, videos, audios and any digital file or any relevant information.
Benefits that BIM can bring to historical heritage projects
Historic heritage buildings are usually projects that have a complex geometry and architectural features that need more time to be portrayed in detail than newly constructed structures. Therefore, BIM methodology is essential, since it enables precision and eliminates possible divergences. The level of detail (LOD) is also considered an important point, since it is through this LOD that all the geometric details included in the derived BIM components can be quantified and described.
BIM offers historical heritage projects benefits such as: evaluation of design options, cost estimation, simulations of buildings, calculation of quantities, detection of inconsistent information, project management, etc. However, the application of BIM in these complex projects must be combined with a structure of well-thought work flows that are governed by rules and protocols.
Nowadays, BIM standards aimed at the development and construction of historical heritage projects are still incipient, so the adoption of BIM norms and specifications for these types of projects is not so simple.